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Pipe_f.Loss v1.3 (Windows)

a single pipe friction loss (pressure drop) calculations... featuring 2-K Method minor loss

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Pipe_f.Loss: Full built-in Data, Material & Fitting Selections

Pipe_f.Loss is specially developed to feature 2-K Method for a single pipe friction loss (pressure drop) calculations. Note that Pipe_f.Loss does not calculate total system (pump) head. If you need to calculate total dynamic head (i.e., pump head), see Easy Pipe Friction (ePF) Loop program for Windows.

It's a plug-and-use Windows PC program, thus creating a mobile design environment (ShowMe!) for the practising engineers & designers in today's mobile world.

Highlights:

- built-in selections for valves & fittings losses using 2-K Method developed by Hooper - 4 options (Colebrook, Swamee, etc) for solving friction factor f - design as easy as "Select & Click" with full built-in database, conversion calculators, guides, etc - save/open project, save results to Rich Text File (.rtf) for formatting & printing

- fully mobile “plug-and-use” program with no setup requirement

Feature . . . 2-K Method for Minor Loss Calculations

The 2-K method is a technique developed by Hooper B.W. to predict the head loss in an elbow, valve or tee. The 2-K method is advantageous over other method especially in the laminar flow region. The 2-K method takes the following forms of equation:

a) for valve & fitting, K = (K1/Re) + K2(1+(1/ID))

where K1 = K for the fitting at Re (Reynolds number) = 1, laminar flow K2 = K for a large fitting at Re = infinity, turbulent flow ID = internal pipe diameter in inch

b) for entrances & exits, K = (K1/Re)+K2. Here, the constant K2 is the "classic" K.

for details, refer to (1) "The Two-K Method Predicts Head Losses in Pipe Fittings" by Hooper B.W., Chemical Engineering, August 24, 1981; (2) "Fluid Flow Handbook" by Jamal M. Saleh (Editor), McGraw-Hill, 2002.

A calculation example using 2-K method can be downloaded here.

Solver for solving Friction Factor, f . . . don't be confused

note: The friction factor, f, mentioned here is Darcy friction factor, not Fanning friction factor. Darcy f = 4 x Fanning f - don't be confused!

a) Laminar Flow: Friction factor is solved by the equation f = 64/Re, where Re=Reynolds number.

b) Turbulent Flow: Solving friction factor for turbulent flow can be tedious and complex. There are numerous equations, both implicit & explicit forms, available for solving friction factor.

Implicit equation requires iteration process and it is best to let a computer program to perform it. The most popular and common one is the Colebrook equation. However, it is to note that there are numerous forms of Colebrook equation available - main and modified forms. In the Pipe_f.Loss program, 4 friction factor equations are included as follows:

Head Loss & Pressure Drop: Darcy-Weisbach equation

Darcy-Weisbach equation is used in the head loss and pressure drop calculations. For details, refer to ASHRAE Fundamentals 2005.

Calculation Example: 2-K Method Minor Losses (in English units)

Consider a 16-in (ID = 15.624-in) Sch 40S stainless steel system. The system contains 100 ft of pipe, 6 long-radius (R/D=1.5) 90^{o} elbows, 2 side-outlet tees, 2 gate valves (β=0.9) and an exit into a tank. The fluid has dynamic viscosity of 1 cP, density of 62.43 lb/ft³, and the flow rate is 13.314 ft³/s. What is the head loss through this system?

The following is the results computed by Pipe_f.Loss program: